高考英语——知识点总结(一)

2019-11-12 16:19:28     浏览次数:33次

1.a great/good many: a large number of许多。修饰可数名词复数。

I’m quite busy. I have a great many things to do. 我很忙,我有很多事要做。

若复数名词前有限定词或其修饰的为代词时,应加of .

①A great many of the books have been sold out. 已经卖了很多书了。

②A great many of them are out of work.他们很多人失业了。

 

2.able(可以的,有能力的,可能的)①He is an able man.那人本事不小。

enable(v)使……

②We must learn more to enable us to face all the difficulties.我们要多学知识以便能面对各种困难。

disable:有残疾的,不能干的;the disabled表示一类人(残疾人)

able作词辍时

可以……的,值得……的(有被动含义)

eatable可食用的,measurable可以测量、估计的;readable可读的

其他含义:conformable舒适的、安逸的;suitable 合适的,恰当的

 

3.above, over, on

三个词都可以表示……,但用法不同。On表示与某物体表面接触;over表示在某物体垂直的上方,含布满、覆盖、跨越之意,与under 相对;above表示位置高于,但不一定垂直,与below相对。注意:与数字、数量、长度词连用时,多用over,more than。如:over10,000people一万多人;表示年龄、刻度多用above,如a man above fifty五十开外的人;above zero零度以上。

习惯用语:well above average远在一般以上;above sea-level海拔以上;the one above上面的一个;above all首先,尤其重要的是;over there 那边;all over 遍及;over again 再一遍;over and over再三地

[应用]介词填空

①There lay an umbrella_______the table and some raincoats _____it.

②The mother held an umbrella______the boy’s head so that the sun wouldn’t burn him.

③ There seemed to be a war and many planes were flying____the city.

④The moon was______the trees in the east.

Key:①on,under ②over ③over ④above

above all 首先,特别是,最重要的是

after all 到底,毕竟

at all (用来加强语气)not连用,表示一点也不,完全不

in all  总共

all but 几乎,差点没(=almost,nearly

①We have all but finished the work.

②The day turned out fine after all.

③Children need many things ,but above all they need love.

④He wasn’t at all tired.

⑤Do you feel ill at all(真的,确实)

⑥There were twenty in all at the party.

accident/event/ incident

event一般指重大事件。accident多指意外或偶然发生的事故,特别是不幸的、有损害性的事故。incident相对于accident来说,显得不很重要,指小事件,它还可以用来表示事变,如叛乱、爆炸等。如:

The broadcaster is broadcasting the news on current events.广播员正在播报时事新闻。

He was badly injured in the traffic accident.在那起交通事故中,他严重受伤。

There was an incident on the bus: a man fought with the conductor.那辆公共汽车上发生了一件事,有个人和售票员打了起来。

Have you heard of Xi’an Incident?你听说过西安事变吗?

 

admit vt.①接纳,许可……进入(allow sb./sth.to enter

He was admitted to the school this year.Only two hundred boys and girls are admitted to our school every year.

承认,后可接名词,doing、从句或复合结构。

I admit my fault. She admitted having read the letter. He admitted that his comprehension was weak.

You must admit the task to be difficult.

advice建议;劝告。是不可数名词,一条建议应用a piece of advice。常用结构。

give sb.advice(on)/give advice给某人提(关于……的)建议;忠告某人。

ask(sb.)for advice征求(某人的)意见。

①Marx gave us some good advice on how to learn a foreign language.

关于如何学好外语,马克思给我们提了些好建议。

②If you take /follow my advice, you’ll pass the exam.如果你听从我的建议,你会考试及格的。

③Let’s ask our teacher for some advice.咱们征求一下老师的意见吧。

admire= respect / praisevt.羡慕,钦佩,夸奖

  admire sb.for sth.)佩服某人某事

  Visitors to Beijing greatly admire our Palace Museum.  去北京的游人极其羡慕我们的故宫。

  I admire him for his wisdom.我佩服他的智慧。别忘了夸奖孩子。

对比:envy= jealousvt.嫉妨,羡慕

  envy sb.sth.)嫉妒/羡慕某人某事  We all envy you your good future.  我们都很羡慕你的好运。

advise sb. to do sth.建议某人做某事(suggest不这样用)。

①I advise you to take the chance.我建议你抓住机会。

②—What do you advise me to do?你建议我怎么办?

—I advise you not to lose heart; just keep on.我劝你不要灰心,继续干。

advise 还可同suggest一样,后接名词、代词、动名词(短语)和that从句(用虚拟语气)作宾语。

①—What would you advise?你有什么建议吗?—I advise you an early start我建议你早点出发。

②I advise holding a metting to discuss the problem.我建议召开一次会议来讨论这个问题。

③I advise you (should) go to once.我建议你马上去。

advise persuade  

persuade sb. to do sth.意为说服某人做某事,强调劝说成功,说服;advise sb. to do sth. 意为劝说某人做某事,不涉及劝说是否有效,相当于try to persuade sb. to do sth.。如:

The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.医生说服我爸爸戒了烟。

The doctor advised my father to give up smoking, but failed.

医生劝我爸爸戒烟,但没成功。

advise; suggest

advise suggest 都可作建议讲,二者用法有同有异。

(1)相同点表示建议做某事,advisesuggest都可采用下列三种句型:

① + 名词

② + 动名词

③ + that从句(从句中常用should加动词原形,should可以省略。)

eg. He advised/ suggested an early start.

He advised/ suggested (our) starting early.

He advised/ suggested that we (should) start early.

(注:只要是用从句表示建议该做的事,从句中就可用“should+动词原形should可以省略。)上面的第三句可转化为:

It was suggested that we (should) start early.

What he suggested was that we(should) start early.

His suggestion was that we (should) start early.

(2)不同点

①advise后可以跟人称代词作宾语,而suggest后不可以跟人称代词作宾语。故可以说:

advise sb. to do sth.; advise sb. against (doing) sth.; advise sb. on/ about sth.; suggest(to sb.)that...

前三种结构中不可将advise改为suggest,如:

他建议我们去参观博物馆。

[]He advised us to go to visit the museum.

[]He suggested us to go to visit the museum.

[]He suggested us that we go to visit the museum.

②suggest还有暗示、表明、说、指出(一个事实)的意思。此时从句中用陈述语气,不用虚拟语气。如:

The smile on his face suggested that he was pleased.

Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the patient was seriously ill.(句中suggest陈述了一个事实,故用陈述语气。)比较:

Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the Patient be

operated on at once.(句中suggest表示建议该做某事,从句中用should加动词原形,should在从句中省略。)

affect=have an effect on sth.vt.影响(effect n.影响)

  This may affect your health.  这或许会影响你的健康。

My throat is always affected by bad weather.我的嗓子总是受恶劣天气的影响。

afraid

1)“be afraid of+名词,意为害怕

2“be afraid of doing sth”意为担心,害怕……”

3“be afraid for…”意为……担心。

4“be afraid that…”意为担心,恐怕

5“be afraid to do ”意为害怕,担心而不敢做某事

6I’m afraid so/not.恐怕是这样/恐怕不会这样

[应用]完成句子

女孩子一般都怕蛇。Girls are usually______ _____snakes.

他怕把杯子打碎,因而很小心。He was careful because he was afraid______ _____the glass.

你不为自己的安全担心吗?Are you afraid_______your safety?

恐怕她会迷路。I am _____  _____she will lose her way.

汤姆把钱丢了,也不敢告诉他母亲。Tom lost the money and was afraid________ ______his mother.

Key:①afraid,of ②of,breaking ③for ④afraid,that ⑤to tell

again and again = time and time again = over and over = over and over again再三地

  The old man thinks of his happy past again and again. 这位老人再三地想起他幸福的过去。

age

  (1)n.年龄,时代,时期

  The old man died at the age of 80/when he was 80 years of age/when he was 80 years old.

那位老人80岁时去世了。

  He is young for his age.  就他的年龄而论,他是年轻的。

  What is the age of the church?  这座教堂多少年了?

  He was the greatest poet of the age.  他是那个时代最伟大的诗人。

  (2)vi./vt. 变老

  He is aging fast. Worry ages a man.  他老得很快。忧虑令人老!

  I found him greatly aged.  我发现他老多了。

拓展:(1adj. aged……岁的,年老的

  a boy aged ten 一个10岁的男孩  an aged man老人

  (2)人生的七期

 baby→infant→child→youth→manhood→middle age→old age

婴儿/0→幼儿7→儿童12→青年28→壮年40→中年65→老年

agree 同意。常用桔构:

(1)agree on ……取得一致意见或达成协议,一般表示原双方共同商讨以后达成协议的名词)。主语必须是两者以上。也常用被动语态,表示(某事)是大家都同意的。如:

①They agreed on the date for the next meeting.对下次会议的日期他们达成了一致意见。

②At last,the plan was agreed on. 最后,这项计划通过了。

③I don’t agree with you to this arrangement, but perhaps, after a discussion we will agree on this project.我不赞同你在这件事的安排,但或许在协商之后我们可以就这个工程达成共识。

(2)agree to 同意;赞成。to 为介词,后接表示建议;办法;计划等名词。

①Do you agree to my plan?你同意我的计划吗?

②The headmaster has agreed to our suggestion for the holiday.校长同意了我们度假的建议。

(3)agree with同意;赞成。后接sb. what 从句。

I agree with you ,but I don’t agree with what he said.我同意你的意见,但我不同意他所说的。另外,agree with还有……相适应/相一致的意思。

The climate here doesn’t agree with me .我不适应这里的气候。

(4)agree to do sth.同意、答应做某事。

Do you agree to go with us if we agree to lend you some money?如果我们答应借钱给你,你同意和我们一起去吗?

ahead短语归纳

go ahead朝前走,请便(同意对方继续干或同意对方的请求);go ahead (on)with…继续;ahead of……前面,早于,优先;ahead of time提前

[应用]完成句子

他朝前走去看看发生了什么事情。He ________ ________ to see what had happened.

我可以坐这个座位吗?请坐吧。May I take this seat?________ _______.

汤姆的数学比玛丽好。Tom is ________ _______ Mary in maths.

她比我早到2个小时。She arrived two hours _______ _______me.

他们已提前三周完成了设计。They have completed the design _______ ______ _______ _______time.

Key:①went,ahead ②Go,ahead③/ ④ahead,of⑤three,weeks,ahead,of

alive,living,live,lively,lovely区别

1)lovely可爱的美好的如:a lovely day 美好的一天   a  lovely girl 可爱的女孩

2)alive 意为活着的、有活力的”,是表语形容词,可修饰人、物;

在句中做表语宾补和或后置定词,不能用作前置定语。如

He was alive when he was taken to the hospital.他被送往医院时还活着。

Although he is old, he is still very much alive.虽然年老了,但他仍十分活跃。

The fish is still alive/living.那条鱼还活着。

Keep him alive, please.请让他活下去吧。

He is the only man alive in the accident.他是事故中惟一活着的人。

After the war , he remained alive .战后他还活着。

Those alive will gather here. 活着的人将在此相聚。

3)living 意为活着的、有生命的,主要用于作前置定语及冠词the 之后表示一类人,也可用作表语,可修饰人或物。如:

a living plant   活的植物

The living will go on with the work of the dead.活着的人将继续死者的工作。

all living things所有生物 the living 在世者,活着的人们

Latin is not a living language. 拉丁语不是现代使用的语言。

He is still living at the age of 95.95岁了他还活着。

4)live [laiv]

1)(动、植物)活的有生命的活生生的,主要用来说鸟或其它动物,作前置定语;如:a live fish一条活鱼 a live tiger  一只活老虎

(2)实况的,现场直播的;如:a live report现场报道a live show/broadcast/TV program现场转播的表演/实况广播/现场直播的电视节目

living有精神的,活泼的,快活的,轻快的

Her grandfather is still living at the age of 93.她爷爷已经93岁了,仍然健在。

5)lively 意为活泼的有生气的”, 生动的

生动的,可用作表语、定语,指人或物。如:

a lively child  活泼的孩子

a lively description  生动的描述如:

a lively mind 活跃的头脑   a lively discussion 热烈的讨论

a way of making one’s classes lively   使课堂生动的方法

He told a lively story about his life in Africa. 他讲述了一个有关他的非洲生活的一个生动故事。

  Young children are usually lively.  年轻人通常很活泼。

all the same adj.都一样;无所谓(to+n.

①You can stay or leave now;It’s all the same to me.

②It’s all the same to me whether we’ll go there today or tomorrow.

adv.仍然,还是

Thank you all the same.

all the year round 全年,一年到头

In the west coast of Canada,it rains all the year round.