高考英语——知识点总结(五)

2019-11-12 16:37:24     浏览次数:46次

表示决心、决定做的几个用法

1)decide to do 决定做

We decided to put off the trip to the U.S.我们决定推迟美国之行。

2)make a decision to do

He has made a decision to buy a new computer.他已决定买一台新电脑。

3)make up one’s mind to do

The doctor made up his mind to go abroad for further education. 那位医生决定出国深造。

4)determine to do

We have determined to get the work done before National Day.我们已决定国庆节前完成这项工作。

5)be determined to do

He is determined to give up smoking.他决心戒烟。

6)decide that……(从句中动词用should + 动词原形)    

We decided that we should widen the road.我们决定拓宽这条路。

[应用]一句多译:这位年轻科学家决心继续自己的研究。

Key:

The young scientist was determined to go on with his

research./He determined to go on with his research./He

decided that he should go on with his research./He made up

his mind to go on with his research./He made a decision to go on with his research./He decided to go on with his research.

表示宁愿、想要某人做某事

下列句型均可表示宁愿、想让某人作某事would like sb.to do sth.;would prefer sb.to do sth.;like sb.to do sth;want sb.to do sth.;would rather that sb.did sth.

对比:would like/love to do sth.喜欢、宁愿做某事;prefer to do sth.宁愿做;would rather do sth.宁愿做;would like/love not to do sth.不想做;would rather not do sth.宁愿不做……prefer not to do sth.不想做;would rather do sth.than do sth.宁愿做某事而不做某事;p11refer to do sth.rather than do sth.宁愿做某事而不做某事。

[应用]①一句多译

我想让我儿子学医。选择正确的答案

Little Jim should love_______to the theatre this evening. (MET’92)

A.to be taken          B.to take  C.being taken          D.taking

Key:

I would like my son to study medicine./I’d love my son to

study medicine,/ I would rather that my son studied medicine./ I like my son to study medicine./I want my son to study medicine./I would rather that my son studied medicine.

②A

表示态度、语气的短语归纳

generally speaking一般说来;strictly speaking严格说来;honestly speaking诚实地说来;personally speaking就我个人而言;exactly speaking准确地说来。to tell you the truth说实话;to be honest老实说;believe it or not信不信由你;judging from his appearance从他的相貌来说

[应用]完成句子

严格说来,加拿大英语和美国英语并不完全一样。_____ ____,Canadian English is not just the same as

American English.

老实说我不赞同你的想法。_______ _______ ________,I can’t agree to your idea.

一般地说,青年人喜欢流行音乐。___________,young people enjoy pop music.

Key:①Strictly,speaking②To,be,honest③Generally, speaking

表示没必要做某事4种句型

①There be no need(for sb.) to do sth.

②It be not necessary(for sb.)to do sth.

主语+don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t have to do sth.

主语+needn’t+动词原形

[应用]一句多译:我们没有必要再等了。

Key:There is no need for us to wait.

    It’s not necessary for us to wait.

    We don’t have to wait.

    We need not wait.

表示祝愿的几种句型

名词短语(+to you:Happy birthday to you! 祝你生日快乐。

Best wishes for Teachers’Day.祝教师节愉快。

②All the best.祝万事如意。

All the best with your family.祝全家好。

All the best in your study/business.祝你学习/事业顺利。

主语+wish+sb.+名词/形容词

I wish you happy.我祝你幸福。

We wish you greater progres.我们祝你取得更大进步。

④I hope+that 从句:

I hope you’ll enjoy being with us.我们希望你和我们在一起很高兴。

部分祈使句也可表祝愿:

Remember me to your family.代我向你全家问好。

Send best wishes to him.向他问好。

break 小结

break 一词常用搭配有:

1break out(战争、火灾、争吵、瘟疫等)爆发

A big fire broke out in the city last week.

(2)break away from 脱离

A carriage(车厢)broke away from the train.

(3)break the law 违反法律

Who breaks the law will be punished by the law.

(4)break in  破门而入;打断

He broke in to say that he was not interested in what I was talking about.

(5)break down 损坏;中断

Her fridge has broken down for a long time.

(6)break off 打断;结束;暂停

They were arguing(争论)but broke off when someone came into the room.

(7)break into闯入;侵入

Thieves broke into my house when I was out.

break off

该短语动词的意思是中断说话暂时停止。如:

He broke off in the middle of a sentence.

break sth.off/break off sth. with sb.

前者意为(使)折断,后者意为与某人突然断绝(关系)。如:

The mast broke off /was broken off when the ship was moving.

break out(战争、火灾、疾病、瘟疫等的)爆发

①The American Civil War broke out in 1861.

②Fire broke out in the neighbour last night.

break out in (into)…忽然(做出)……

break out in laughter突然放声大笑

break in (强盗等)强行闯入

break into闯入;打碎(打破)成……

break up 分开,分割

bring短语归纳

bring down()刮倒,降低(降落);bring up 养大,呕吐;bring about带来,引起;bring along捎来,带来,bring back 归还;bring out 拿出;bring in 赚(钱),带进,传入;bring on 端上(饭菜),引起(火灾),使……成长;

[应用]副词填空

①He felt terribly ill and brought ______ what he ate.

②Surely the new railway will bring __ many changes in this less developed area.

③Next time you come to China, be sure to bring ______your friends.

④All the library books must be brought_______ before June20.

⑤Selling newspapers brings ______ enough money for my  schooling.

⑥Enough water can bring the rice _______ .

Key: ①up ②about ③along ④back ⑤in ⑥on

bring/take/fetch(get)/carry

①bring向着说话人的地方带来;拿来

②take由说话人的地方带走;拿去

③fetch(get)由说话人的地方去拿来、带来,指往返双程。

④carry“携带;搬运;运送,无方向性。

bring in   ……拿进来;收获;赚入……;获利

They bring in one million dollars a year from their new company.

broadcast vt.;vi.广播;播放。过去式和过去分词均为broadcast

①The BBC broadcasts every day.BBC每天都广播。

②The news was broadcast on the radio.这个消息是收音机里播送的。

burst into tears

该动宾短语,理解的重点是不及物动词burst的意思及其分词或副词连用的结构形式和意思。

burst是及物动词或不及物动词,意为(使)爆破胀破。如:

①He put too much air into the balloon and it burst.

②The funny joke made the children burst their sides with laughing.

burst由原意引伸出表示空发性的动作,意为突然发生突然发作。常构成一些短语,如:

burst into tears/laughter(突然大哭/大笑)

burst into song(突然唱起歌来)

burst into angry speech(大发雷庭)

burst into bloom(开花)

burst into view/sight(景象,奇观的)突然出现

burst into the room(闯入房间)

burst out/forth laughing(捧腹大笑)

burst out/forth crying(突然大哭)

:On hearing the sad news, she burst into tears.

Busy

be busy doing sth.

该结构意为忙于做某事。应注意的是be busy 后只能接动词-ing形式,不能接动词不定式to do,相同结构的形容词还有worth。如:

①He is busy writing his composition.

②She keeps busy working on a new novel these weeks.

③This book is well worth seeing.

but prep. 之外。与except同义,除了的部分与其他部分不在一个范围内,不具有一致性。except适用场合较多,but 主要用于带有nothing/nobody/no one/all 等不定代词的句子。

①No one except/but you was late.除你之外没有迟到。(你迟到了)

②We all went to see a film yesterday evening except/but you.除你之外作天晚上我们都去看电影了。(你没去)

③That window is open except in winter .除冬天外那窗户一直开着。(冬天不开)另外,but后可接不不定式。如果句子前面有实义动词do及其变化形式时,不定式不带to; 否则不定式带to .

①I did nothing yesterday evening but watch TV.昨天晚上除看电视外我什么也没干。

②He had no choice but to leave.他只得离开。

注意:besides 也是介词,意为……之外(还有)。除了的部分和其他部分在同一个范围内,具有一致性。

①We all went to see a film yesterday evening besides you.除你之外昨天晚上我们也都去看电影了。(你和我们都去了)

②Who is going there with Tom besides you? 除你之外还有谁和汤姆一起去?

but for

该短语介词意为要不是……”,后接名词(=without + n.,but for…短语相当于一个虚拟条件句,因此,句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。如:

The boy would have drowned but for your help.

如果接的是句子,but for要换用成but that…如:

He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.(= if it had not been the fact that he was…)

Buy

我的金项链花了2500有多种译法:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by prep. ……。用来表示方式,其后的名词为单数,且不加冠词。

例如 by bike/bus/ car /taxi/train//road/railway/land/boat/ship/ water/ sea/

plane/air

但:步行on foot.

注意:若表示交通工具的名词前有限定词,则将by 改作in on.

in one’s/the car/ bus/plane etc.  on the bike

by name

该介宾词组的意思是名叫……”凭名字。如:

①He met a man, John by name.

②I knew him only by name.

by one’s first marriage 通过或由于某人的第一次婚姻

介词by有许多含义,在此处意为通过,相当于through

  He left by the first train.

他乘第一次列车离开了。

The electricity supply is operated by a switch.供电由一个开关控制。

by the age of/at the age of,by……时为止。表示的是一段时间,句子通常用完成时态。

at……时候。表示的是具体时间点,句子通常用一般时态。

①By the age of ten,he had learned to play the piano.10岁的时候,他就学会了弹钢琴。

②He was very clever.and at the age of 15 he went to college.他非常聪明,15岁时上大学了。

③By the end of this term,we’ll have learned 2000 English words.到本学期末,我们将学会2000个英语单词。

④At the end of this term,we’ll hold an English party.在本学期末,我们

将举行一次英语晚会.

call 短语

动词.call所构成的短语很多,现将在中学课上的常出现的由call所构成短语的意义和用法列出。

(1)call at 指短期访问某地:顺便去某处。

We called at the park when we stayed in the city. 我们在那个城市时顺便去了那个公园。

(2)call on的意思正式拜访某人;此外,它还有号召之意。如:

They called on the famous scientist.他们拜访了那个著名科学家。

The Party calls on us to learn from Comrade Lei Feng.党号召我们向雷锋同志学习。

(3)call to“大声呼唤、招呼、呼求。如:

They called to us for help. 他们向我们呼求援助。

(4)call for可作要求、需要、提倡,还可作邀约解。如:

This is a problem that calls for immediate solution.这是个要求立即解决的问题。

I’ll call for you then and we go there together.到时我来叫你,我们一起去哪儿。

(5)call in召来、召请、召进之意。

You’d better call in a doctor.你最好请一位医生来。

(6)此外,call back叫回来、收回之意;call off叫出去、叫走之意;call after可作追在后面叫喊以某人的名字命名之意。

can/may/must表推测的用法

can, may, must等都可用于表推测,但它们的含义和用法不同。

must语气最肯定,指一定、必定,只用于肯定句中。“must+动词原形表示对现在情况的推测;“must + have + done ”表示对过去情况的推测。如:

Mum must be cooking supper now.妈妈现在一定在做晚饭。

He must have finished his work.他一定完成他的工作了。

May/might表示或许,可能。如:

Tom may go abroad next year.汤姆明年可能要出国。

She might have finished the work.她可能已完成这项工作了。

He can’t know the answer.他不可能知道这个答案。

can/could表示可能,会,我用于否定和疑问句中。如:

Could she he at home?她可能在家吗?

can,表示一时的情况,意为有时侯会……”

can的这种用法,只用在肯定句中。如:

Children are lovely, but they can be tiring.

 Training by yourself in a game can be highly dangerous.

carry短语归纳

carry away拿走,带走;carry on(with)one’s work继续工作;carry on a struggle/fight 开展斗争;carry on a big business经营大生意;carry out a plan/order/promise/instructions/one’s duty/an experiment/advices/tests执行计划/执行命令/履行诺言/执行指示/履行职责/做实验/按建议办/进行试验;be carried up into space被发射升空。

[应用]介、副词填空

①It’s often easier to make plans than it is to carry them______.

②Let’s stop here. We’ll carry________ the conversation tomorrow.

③Carry the baby _______. It’s dangerous here.

④Rising costs made it hard to carry ________ the business.

⑤They decided to carry ________ though the weather was bad.

Key:①out ②on ③away ④on ⑤on