高考英语——知识点总结(三)

2019-11-12 16:28:40     浏览次数:34次

as long as/so long as只要

  (1)引导条件状语从句

  You may borrow the book as / so long as you keep it clean.  只要你不把书弄脏,你就可以借。

You will succeed so long as you work hard.  只要你努力就会成功。

  As long as you study hard, you’ll make great progress. 只要你努力学习,你就会取得很大进步。

  (2)……一样长

  This rope is as long as that one.这条绳子和那条一样长。

  This bridge isn’t so/as long as that one.这座桥和那座不一样长。

  (3)长达……(表时间)

  The old couple have been living in the small town as long as 50 years.

这对老夫妇已在这个小城镇里住了长达50年。

as well/ as well as

as well 表示,是副词短语,用作状语,通常放在句末,也可放在主语之后,相当于too,但一般无标点符号与句子隔开.as well as 通常看作一个复合并列连词,连接两个成分相同的词、短语或句子,表示…………,不但……而且……”当它连接两个主语时,谓语动词的人称和数要与第一个主语保持一致。如:

The children learn to read, write and they play games as well.孩子们学习读书写字,他们也做游戏。

With television,we can see a picture as well as hear sound.利用电视,我们既能听到声音,又能看到图像.

Tom,as well as his parents,likes pop music.汤姆以及他的父母都喜欢流行音乐。

as;which引导定语从句异同

as, which 都能引导限制性或非限制性的定语从句。

(1)在引导限制性定语从句时;

①which从句修饰的先行词是名词(词组),which可与that换用,作宾语时可省去。如:

Then grow some tomatoes in one box which has plant food in the soil and some in another box which doesn’t.

But the studios(which)he started are still busy today, producing more and more interesting films.

②as从句的先行词是the same/such或被the same/such修饰;as可作主、宾、表语,一律不可省略。如:Many of the sports were the same as they are now.as作表语)

He uses the same map as I (use).他和我用的是同一份地图。(as作宾语)

Such as beautiful park as is being built was designed by two young engineers.正在建造的如此漂亮的公园是由两个年轻的工程师设计的。(as作主语)

The printed newspaper was not such as the chief editor had expected. 印好的报纸并非如主编原来所期望的那样。(as作宾语)

(2)在引导非限制性定语从句时,as,which都可作主、宾、表语,都不可省去。

①which从句补充说明先行词的用途、性质、状态、特征等。如:

At present,the biggest nature park for milu deer in China is in the Nanhaizi Milu Park,which is about 20 kilometres south of Beijing.(位置)

China Daily has plenty of advertisements, which help to cut

the costs of making the newspaper.(用途)

One of Charile Chaplin’s most famous films was“The Gold Rush”,which was made in 1925.(时间)

Now, however,the maters of this great lake,which is also the

World’s deepest(over 1,740 metres),have been dirtied by waste

from a chemical factory.(特征)

②which从句还可表示说话人的看法,也可对主句作意义上的补充;which=and it/ this/ that/ they;which代表的是先行词、主句或主句的一部分;which从句只能放在先行词或主句后。如:

He said she could speak 4 foreign languages, which(=and it)is not true.他说她会四门外语,这是不可能的。(说话人看法,which代表宾语从句部分)

比较:He said she could speak 4 foreign languages, which(=and that)surprised every one of us.他说她会四门外语,这使我们每个人都很惊讶。(补充主句,which 代表主句)

Leaves are turning yellow, which means autumn is coming.  树叶正在变黄,这意味着秋天就要来了。

③as也可代表先行词、主句或主句一部分。但as正如的意义,其从句可放在主句前或后,如:

The Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge,as we all know, was compl-

eted in 1969.我们都知道南京长江大桥,它建成于一九六九年。(as代表先行词)

To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.()你们许多人(所做的那样)对事实视而不见是愚蠢的。(as代表主语部分)

  As we know, the earth is round.  我们知道,地球是圆的。

ask for 要求,请求

ask sb.for sth.向(某人)请求(要求)……

She asked for some advice on how to learn English well.

at表示速度、价格、利率

at a high/low price以高价/;低价;at 40 miles an hour 以每小时40英里的速度;at a high/low speed以高速/慢速;at an ordinary speed 以普通速度;at full/top speed以全速/高速;at a speed of ……速度。

[应用]完成句子

公司决定以较低的价格将这批电视卖掉。

The company decided to sell the TV sets _   __ _   __ __   _        

火车正以每小时150英里的速度前进。

The train was running ______ _____ ______ _______150 miles an hour .

Key:①at, a, low, price②at,a, speed,of

“at+名词表示在进行,从事

at work 在工作;at table在吃饭;at play 在做游戏;at sea 出海;at university/college在上学;at night school在上夜校;at dinner/table在吃饭;at peace处于和平状态;at war在交战,在打仗

[应用]完成句子。

别人在工作,不要吵闹。Don’t make any noise while others are ______ ________.

孩子们在游戏,而他们的父母正在吃饭。

The children were ______ ________ while their parents were_______ _______.

Key:①at, work②at,play,at,dinner

at last, in the end, finally

三者均有最后、终于的含义。

finally常用于动词之前,表示人们长期以来期待的某事最后实现了,也可指一系列事物或论点的顺序。例如:

fter putting it off three times,we finally managed to have a holiday in Greece.经过三次延期之后,我们终于在希腊度了一次假。

hey talked about it for hours.Finally,they decided not to go.他们谈论了几个小时,最后决定不去。

at last 有时可与finally互换,但往往用于一番拖延或曲折之后,语气更强烈。例如:

When at last they found him, he was almost dead.当人们最终找到他时,他已经奄奄一息了。

James has passed his exams at last.詹姆斯终于通过了考试。

in the end指经过许多变化、困难的捉摸不定的情况之后,某事才发生。例如:

We made five different plans for our holiday, but in the end we had a summer camp again.我们制订了五种不同的度假方案,但最后我们还是选定了再来一次夏令营活动。

at (the) least 至少;最少。反义词组为at (the)most至多;最多。

—Mr Smith looks older than his real age.In fact,he is at (the)most 40 years old.史密斯先生很显老,实际上他最多40岁。

—Oh, really?I thought he was 50 years old at (the)least.噢,真的吗?我以为他至少50岁了。

at the beginning of ……初(开头),可指时间与空间。如:

at the beginning of term 在学期开始

at the beginning of the book 在那本书的开头

at the beginning 单独用时间at first,也可说in the beginning.

比较:at the end of ……末(尽头)      at the end 在末尾处

in the end 最终,同at last       in the middle of ……中期

from beginning to end 从头至尾

at the doctor’s

该结构为介词+名词所有格,意为在诊所。所有格-’s后一般接名词,如her mother’s bike ,但有时这个名词可省略,主要表现在以下两个方面:

指一个企业,机构,教堂,学校,医院,家庭,理发店,店铺时。如:

She is at the hairdresser’s.

为了避免重复,省略-’s后的名词。如:

I have read some of Shaw’s plays,but none of Shakespeare’s.

at the last moment在最后关头

at the moment 此刻;正在那时 for a moment片刻;一会儿for the moment 目前,暂时in a moment立刻,马上

at the top of……的顶部,上方

at the top of a mountain在山顶

She is (at)the top of her class in French.

at the top of one’s voice高声地,尖声地

at war

该介宾词组意思是处于战争或交战状态。在句中常作表语。如:

The U.S.A.and Iraq are at war again.

at, with, through表原因

三个介词都可表示原因,at表示听到或看到的原因;with表示人体外部的原因;through 强调自身的原因。如:be sad at the news听了这个消息而悲伤;be frightened at the sight看了那个情景而害怕;jump up with joy高兴地跳了起来;turn red with anger气得脸红;shake with cold/fear冻得/害怕得发抖;with pleasure高兴地;with pride 骄傲地;with satisfaction满意地;make the mistake through his carelessness由于粗心而出错;be put into prison through no fault of his own 没有任何罪过被关进监狱。

[应用]汉译英

听到这个消息,全国人民处于悲哀之中。

孩子们高兴地跳了起来。

由于大意他犯了这个错误。

Key:①At the news, the whole country was in deep sorrow.

②The children jumped up with joy.

③He made the mistake through his carelessness.

at work; out of work; after work

这三个以work为中心词的介词短语,在意思和用法上均不相同。

(1)at work表示在工作、在上班,作表语或状语。例如:

They are both at work today.今天他们俩都在上班。

His father had an accident at work last week.上周的父亲在工作时出了事故。

(2)out of work表示失业,是介词短语,相当于lost one’s jobbe unemployed。例如:

If you don’t work hard, you’ll be out of work.如果你不好好工作就会失业。

You’ll be out of work if you keep coming late.如果你老是迟到,你会失业的。

(3)after work表示下班后,作时间状语。例如:

What do you usually do after work?下班后你经常干什么?

I visited Mr Liu after work yesterday.昨天下班后我看望过刘先生。

attempt

(1)n.尝试;企图。

①He made an attempt to learn to ski.他尝试着学滑雪。

②He failed in attempt at climbing up the mountain.他企图爬上这座山,却失败了。

(2)vt.尝试;企图。

①She attempted to learn Japanese.她试图学习日语。

②The prisoner attempted an escape.那犯人企图逃走。

12.keep out of = keep sth.(sb.)out of不使入内;不牵涉进去。

①Warm clothing will keep the cold out.保暖的衣服可御寒。

②Keep out of their quarrels.不要参与他们争吵。

attention  短语

pay attention to sth.  注意某事

draw one’s attention(to sth.)  引起某人的注意

be worth one’s attention  值得某人注意

bring one’s attention to sth.  叫某人注意某事

average短语归纳

average 可用作名词,表示平均数,一般水平,也可作形容词,表示平均的。如:

the average of the pay 平均工资;above/below the average 平均以上/以下;

the average age of the girls姑娘的平均年龄;

the average temperature平均气温;

on(an,the)average平均起来

[应用]完成句子

这个厂的工人平均每月收入700元。____ ______one worker in this factory gets 700 yuan

every month.

他的功课一般以上。He is_________ _________ in his lessons.

Key: ①On, average    ②above, average   awake,wake

①awake用作及物或不及物动词,表示叫醒,唤醒;醒来;而wake表示相同意义时,必须与up连用,对比:

The noise awoke me./The noise woke me up.

嗓音把我闹醒。

She usually awakes at six in the morning./She usually wakes up at six in the morning.她通常早上6点醒。

注意:awake 不与up连用;wake up 的宾语是人称代词时必须置于两个词之间。误:wake up him正:wake him up

②awake 还可用作形容词,只用作表语或后置定语,不能用作前置定语。其反义词是asleep.如:

Is he awake or asleep?他睡着了还是醒着?

Anyone awake heard the sound.任何醒着的人都听到了那个声音。

注意:wide/fully awake 完全醒着;sound/fast/deeply asleep熟睡

[应用]完成句子

他醒来时,他母亲在他的旁边。When he_______,his mother was beside him.

我彻夜未眠,一直在考虑这个问题。I have lain_______all night thinking of the problem.

他突然醒了,好象有人叫他的名字。He ______ _______suddenly,as if someone had called his name.

她睡着的时候谁也叫不醒他。No one can_______ _______ ________when she is asleep.

Key:①awoke ②awake ③woke up ④wake,her,up

battle, war, fight, struggle

war指战争的总体;battlewar中的战斗或战役;fight指具体的人与人之间或动物之间的争斗;struggle指长时间、激烈的争斗,多指肉体、精神上的战斗。对比:

We have had two world wars in this century.本世纪已有两次世界大战。

They were wounded in the battle.他们在战斗中受了伤。

We have started a fight against pollution. 我们已开始了一场消除污染的斗争。

His life was a hard struggle with sickness.他一生跟疾病作了艰苦的斗争。

[应用]英译汉

①in time of war           ②be at war

③declare war on…④fight a battle

⑤give/offer battle        ⑥have a hand-to-hand fight

Key:①战时交战,在打仗

……宣战打一仗挑战

肉搏战

伴随状语可用现在分词也可用过去分词

He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased.

本句有三个并列谓语,looking 部分为伴随状语。

例题  1He held up his finger ,_______ a face and nodded his head.Amaking     B. made

答案:B.此题有and ,需连接并列结构,所填词的形式应与前后保持一致。

2) He sat there in silence, _______sad and doing nothing.A. looking                     B. looked

答案:A.此题and 之后ing形式,其前面也应该用ing形式,而不能与前面的sat并列。

3)He sat there in silence ,______ nothing.A.doing              B.did

答案:A.此题才是在逗号之后,需要伴随状误。

4)He set out early, ________ there on time .A.arriving                    B. and arrived

答案:B.此题两种选项从形式看都有可能,但根据意思看,到达并不伴随出发的动作,而是明显地有先有后。

5)He made a smile, _____ with the result.  A. satisfying           B. satisfied

答案:B.伴随状语可用现在分词也可用过去分词,此处表示感到满意的一种状态,而satisfying表示令人满意的,此时的satisfied是过去分词,而不是过去式。

be about to do sth. 正要、即将做某事。是将来时的一种表达方式,表示最近的将来。

①I was about to go to bed when he called.我正要去睡觉,这时他打来了电话。

②When I saw Tom, he was about to get on the bus.我看到汤姆,他正要上汽车。

注意:be about to 通常不用于带有具体时间状语的句子,但可用be going to 表示。

①Hurry up! They are about to start.快点!他们就要走了。

②Hurry up! They are going to start at 10 o’clock.快点!10点钟他们就要走了。